top of page



  • Gabler NB, Duan N, Vohra S, Kravitz RL. N-of-1 trials in the medical literature: a systematic review. Medical care. 2011 Aug 1:761-8. Click here to access.

  • Manolov, Gast, Perdices, Evans (2014). Single-case experimental designs: Reflections on conduct and analysisNeuropsychological Rehabilitation, 24, 634-660. Click here to access

  • Manolov & Moeyaert (2016). How can single-case data be analyzed? Software resources, tutorial, and reflections on analysis. Behaviour Modification, 41, 179-228. Click here to access.

  • Molenaar PC, Valsiner J. How generalization works through the single case: A simple idiographic process  analysis of an individual psychotherapy. YIS: Yearbook of idiographic science. 2009;1:23-38. Click here to access



  • Gast. (2014). Visual analysis of graphic data. In Gast and Ledford (Eds.) Single Case Research Methodology. Applications in Special Education and Behavioral Sciences (2nd Ed). pp. 176-210. New York, NY: Routledge. Click here to access

  •  Lane & Gast. (2014). Visual analysis in single case experimental design studies: Brief review and guideline. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 24, 445-463. Click here to access


  • Barton, Pustejovsky, Maggin & Reichow (2017). Technology-aided instruction and intervention for students with ASD: A meta-analysis using novel methods of estimating effect sizes for single-case research. Remedial and Special Education. 

  • Chen LT, Wu PJ, Peng CY. Accounting for baseline trends in intervention studies: Methods, effect sizes, and software. Cogent Psychology. 2019 Jan 1;6(1):1679941.

  • Odom, Barton, Reichow, Swaminathan & Pustejovsky (2018). Between-case standardized effect size analysis of single case designs: Examination of the two methods. Research in developmental disabilities. 

  • Parker RI, Vannest K. An improved effect size for single-case research: Nonoverlap of all pairs. Behavior Therapy. 2009 Dec 1;40(4):357-67.



  • Brossart DF, Laird VC, Armstrong TW. Interpreting Kendall’s Tau and Tau-U for single-case experimental designs. Cogent Psychology. 2018 Jan 1;5(1):1518687. 

  • Parker, Vannest, Davis & Sauber. (2011). Combining non-overlap and trend for single-case research: Tau-U. Behavior Therapy, 35, 202-322.

  • Tarlow KR. An improved rank correlation effect size statistic for single-case designs: Baseline corrected Tau. Behavior Modification. 2017 Jul;41(4):427-67. 

  • Tau-U calculator

D STATISTICS (The d statistic was specifically developed for analysis of SCEDs and is comparable to Cohen’s d for between group differences)

  • Shadish, Hedges, Pustejovsky, Boyajian, Sullivan, Andrade, Barrientos (2014). A d-statistic for single-case designs that is equivalent to the usual between-groups d-statistic. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 24, 528-553.

  • Shadish (2015). A manual on SPSS® macros to calculate d for both WRDs and multiple baseline designs.


Sample Size Considerations

  • Senn S. Sample size considerations for n-of-1 trials. Statistical methods in medical research. 2019 Feb;28(2):372-83. 


Dynamic Regression Modelling 

  • Vieira, R., McDonald, S., Araújo-Soares, V., Sniehotta, F. F., & Henderson, R. (2017). Dynamic modelling of n-of-1 data: powerful and flexible data analytics applied to individualised studiesHealth psychology review, 11, 222-234. Click here to access

  • McDonald, S., Vieira, R., & Johnston, D. W. (2020). Analysing N-of-1 observational data in health psychology and behavioural medicine: a 10-step SPSS tutorial for beginners. Health psychology and behavioral medicine, 8(1), 32-54.​ Click here to access.


Randomization Tests

  • Bouwmeester S, and Jongerling J. Power of a randomization test in a single case multiple baseline AB design. PLOS ONE. 2020 Feb 6;15(2):e0228355.

  • Lall VF, Levin JR. An empirical investigation of the statistical properties of generalized single-case randomization tests. Journal of School Psychology. 2004 Jan 1;42(1):61-86. 


Bayesian Analysis for N-of-1 Trials

  • Mengersen, McGree & Schmid (2015). Statistical Analysis of N-of-1 Trials. In Nikles & Mitchell (Eds.) The Essential Guide to N-of-1 Trials in Health. Springer Netherlands


N-of-1 Studies Counterfactual Framework

  • Daza (2018) Causal Analysis of Self-tracked Time Series Data Using a Counterfactual Framework for N-of-1 Trials. Methods of Information in Medicine, 57, e10-e21


Accounting for Missing Data

  • Chen LT, Feng Y, Wu PJ, Peng CY. Dealing with missing data by EM in single-case studies. Behavior Research Methods. 2020 Feb;52(1):131-50

  • De TK, Michiels B, Tanious R, Onghena P. Handling missing data in randomization tests for single-case experiments: A simulation study. Behavior Research Methods. 2020 Jan 2:1-6



  • Pustejovsky, JE (2018). Easily simulate thousands of single-case designs

Aggregation and Meta-Analysis



  • Tate, Wakim, Sigmundsdottir & Longley (2018). Evaluating an intervention to increase meaningful activity after severe traumatic brain injury: A single-case experimental design with direct inter-subject and systematic replications. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. 


  • Manolov (2019). List of single-case data analysis software tools. A collection of analysis resources for SCEDs on the Open Science Framework. Click here to access.

  • Manolov, Moeyaert & Evans (2015). Resources and guidelines for analysing SCED data. Click here to access.

  • Vannest, Parker, Gonen & Adiguzel. (2016). Single Case Research: web based calculators for SCR analysis. Click here to access.

bottom of page